The IPA is the major as well as the oldest representative organisation for phoneticians. It was established in 1886 in Paris. 2016 marked the 130th anniversary of the founding of the IPA, and 2018 marked the 130th anniversary of the first publication of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the formulation of the principles. The aim of the IPA is to promote the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science. In furtherance of this aim, the IPA provides the academic community world-wide with a notational standard for the phonetic representation of all languages - the International Phonetic Alphabet (also IPA). The latest version of the IPA Alphabet was published in 2015, and IPA charts are re-issued annually.