15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS-15)
Most studies of the vocal signs of emotion depend on acted data. This paper reports the development of a vocal coding system to describe the signs of emotion in naturally occurring emotion. The system has been driven by empirical observation, not by a priori assumptions based on acted or laboratory data. The data used to develop it is the Belfast Naturalistic Database. The system takes a multi-level approach to coding, starting broad brush and moving through progressive layers to finer resolution. The first level uses broad categories which apply to each clip as a whole. Thereafter it uses a tiered approach, starting with an outer tier of relatively coarse descriptors and progressing through successive tiers to more detailed descriptors associated more precisely with locations in a clip. The coding system shows that there are vocal signs of naturally occurring emotion which have not been picked up before in acted data.
Bibliographic reference. Douglas-Cowie, E. / Cowie, R. / Schröder, Marc (2003): "The description of naturally occurring emotional speech", In ICPhS-15, 2877-2880.