15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS-15)
Relative timing of the gestures of /r/ was measured in initial, final, and intervocalic positions for eight speakers representing several dialects of English. Simultaneous video and ultrasound were used to collect kinematic midsagittal measurements of several events associated with English /r/. Results show that, in initial allophones, gestures occur front-to-back, with the lip gesture occurring first, then the tongue body, then the tongue root. In final position, there is little timing effect, but spatially, the lip gesture is often obscured or reduced. Timing is not significantly affected by resyllabification or dialect. These results show timing patterns for /r/ that are analogous in crucial ways to those previously observed for /l/ and /w/, but that further support that these timing differences are phonetic responses to perceptual recoverability factors. An additional observation of this paper is that tongue mid lowering is likely a tongue body raising mechanism.
Bibliographic reference. Gick, Bryan / Campbell, Fiona (2003): "Intergestural timing in English /r/", In ICPhS-15, 1911-1914.