15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS-15)
Arabic is mainly characterized by having two types of articulation mainly taking place in the pharyngeal cavity, the first is a primary articulation in producing the pharyngeal consonant the voiceless /ħ/ and the voiced /ʕ/ which are produced by making a constriction in the laryngopharyngeal cavity caused by retracting the root of the tongue and the attached epiglottis; the larynx is raised 10-13 mm, a constriction takes place in the laryngeal vestibule and the arytenoids move upwards. The second type is a secondary articulation, known as "emphasis"; this phonetic feature can move mainly from right to left and in some dialects from left to right as well, so any other consonant or vowel can become emphatic. The pharyngeal sounds and the emphatic feature are different, although they are produced in the same place of articulation.
Bibliographic reference. Al-Halees, Yousef (2003): "A xeroradiographic, ultrasonic, laryngoscopic and acoustic study of pharyngeals and emphatics in Arabic", In ICPhS-15, 1747-1750.